This book analyses the principles and practices of philanthropy and distributive justice in Islam. It argues, with analyses and examples, that the accomplishment of purposive philanthropy, as commanded by the fundamental tenets of Islam, through the professionalization and rationalization of zakat management, modernization of awaqaf, etc. has the potential of optimizing justice in Muslim societies. The work draws on the Quran, Hadithe, other authentic literature, and also on official documents and publications of management agencies dealing with philanthropy in different Muslim countries/societies. The analyses are documented enough to be used as a text for the study of philanthropy in Islam in tertiary institutions nonetheless are simple enough to draw general readership and to be used by non-profit and international organizations worldwide in order to order to understand the principles and issues of philanthropy and distributive justice in Muslim societies.